Finnsheep for Handspinners
Discover Finn Wool!
American handspinners are discovering Finn wool! A medium wool with a micron count from 24 to 31 (50s) and a staple length from 3 to 6 inches, it is suitable for hand-spinning and knitting of outer garments such as sweaters, socks, hats, etc.. The lamb fleeces are soft enough to make garments worn next to the skin. It is also an excellent wool for felting and can be used for traditional (wet) felting, needle-felting and fulling projects. The distinctive characteristics of Finn wool are luster and a soft hand. Finn wool has the luster (shine) otherwise found only in the long-wooled breeds (more coarse). It is also softer to the touch than other medium wools with the same micron count. See our Fleece Picture Gallery page for some pictures of Finnsheep fleeces.
The original purpose for importing Finnsheep into North America was for use in cross-breeding programs in order to increase the lambing percentage in commercial flocks. Recently, some Finnsheep breeders are paying greater attention to wool quality, color, consistency and luster. Some breeders are choosing to have their wool tested to get objective data to assist them in making breeding decisions which will improve their wool. There is greater attention to designing a system of feeding hay so that sheep are unable to “burrow” in it. Others also jacket their sheep during the months when they must feed hay, in order to keep chaff from getting into the wool and preserve the quality of the wool clip for hand-spinning purposes.
An Easy-keeper for the Home Flock
Finnsheep are a wonderful breed for the handspinner. Due to their small size and docile nature, they are easy to handle. They do not have horns (which can be destructive or get caught in fencing). They are also easy keepers. Best of all, Finnsheep are friendly! There is nothing more peaceful and relaxing than spending time out in a green pasture giving your favorite sheep a scratch under the chin or behind the ears. Many handspinners enjoy keeping just a few sheep for their own enjoyment for fiber and companionship. Wethers (neutered males) make wonderful fiber pets and are often even more tame and friendly than the ewes.
While the breed is known for having “litters of lambs”, the ewes rarely require assistance in giving birth. The lambs are born small – mostly head and legs – which contributes to lambing ease. However, within just a few days they turn into beautiful plump lambs. It is important to provide ample protein during the 3rd trimester of gestation through lactation to insure development of the lambs in utero and adequate milk production in the ewes. (Development of the lamb’s wool and the follicles which produce it, begin in utero!) Finn ewes are good mothers, doting on their lambs. They should produce enough milk to raise two lambs and often can raise three if fed properly. Additional lambs can be raised as bottle lambs (or on a self-feeding station) or can be left with the mother and supplemented with milk replacer made for lambs.
Finnsheep – in Color
The vast majority of Finnsheep in the U.S. are white. The original group of Finnsheep imported into North America were all white. However, some carried a gene for color (black) and some carried the gene for being piebald (spotted). Because white is most dominant, it is fairly easy to breed out color (or at least its expression), if one wishes to have only white sheep. Eventually, through breeding different combinations of these original sheep, the black color and piebald spotting began to be expressed. The black color can sometimes “fade” to a very attractive grey or brown shade as the sheep age. These sheep are sometimes referred to as “fading blacks”. Throughout the years, a few of the US breeders feel that they have produced genetic browns, greys and fawns from the original bloodlines brought into North America in the 1960′s. Unfortunately these numbers have been small and the sheep scattered across the country. This has made it prohibitively difficult to combine these lines to see if they “breed true”. So far, no one has been able to create large numbers of sheep in these colors from the original U.S. stock.
In 1998, frozen semen was imported from Finland with the goal of introducing the genetics for sheep with brown, grey and fawn wool into the US. While these colors are still rare, they will gradually become available with subsequent generations of lambs.
It is felt that Finnsheep follow the same basic color genetics as the other Northern Short-tailed breeds such as Shetlands and Icelandics. There are currently fewer colors and patterns available in US Finns than some of these other breeds. Some patterns such as “badgerface” (mäyrät) are rare even in Finland and efforts are being made there to preserve these rare colors/patterns as they are discovered on tiny remote farms. However, as the grey and brown become more prevalent in the US, and are crossed with different lines of Finnsheep it is possible that more of these patterns will emerge. At present, Finnsheep in the US are of the following colors: white, black, brown, grey, & fawn. Markings include piebald(spotted fleece), badgerface, solid, & HST(white markings on head, “socks”, &/or tail of an otherwise solid colored sheep).
Only the basics of Finn color genetics are currently known. There are many complexities related to color fading, shades of color, patterns and the genetics of the rare colors such as grey that are still being discovered. Dr. Hankonen, the veterinarian in NE Finland who is credited with saving the grey Finnsheep, classified many types of grey Finnsheep during his years of work. We are attempting to locate that information. For a more complete explanation of color genetics and their inheritance in Finnsheep, check out this site: Color Genetics of Icelandic, Shetland / Finn Sheep.
Here are the very basics of Finn color genetics…(with apologies to the scientific community for careless use of terminology)… Finnsheep carry 2 genes (A locus) which determine if the sheep will be white, grey/fawn or solid color (black/brown). They also carry 2 genes for their color “factor” (B locus). Both the color and factoring work together to determine the color you see (phenotype) on the sheep.
A white sheep can have:
- 2 genes for white (= a white sheep),
- 1 gene for white and 1 gene for grey / color (= a white sheep recessive for grey / color)
White, which is known as a “pattern” is dominant to all other colors and patterns. So if a sheep has even one gene for white, the result will be a white sheep.
Grey is also a “pattern” and is inherited in the same way. It is dominant to all other colors except for the white “pattern”. Thus a sheep could have:
- 2 grey genes (= a grey or fawn sheep),
- 1 gene for grey and 1 gene for color (= a grey or fawn sheep recessive for black or brown).
The white pattern is dominant to the grey pattern. Most grey and fawn Finnsheep have darker colored face and legs.
All Finnsheep are either black or brown factored (B locus), even white and grey/fawn sheep. The white and grey patterns “hide” the expression of this color. Each sheep has two genes for their factoring. The black gene is dominant to the brown gene. So every sheep will either have:
- 2 black factor genes (=a black sheep)
- 2 brown factor genes (= a brown sheep)
- 1 black factor gene and 1 brown factor gene (= a black sheep recessive for brown).
When the grey “pattern” is present, it will cause the sheep to be grey (on a black factored sheep) or fawn (on a brown factored sheep). When the white “pattern” is present, it will cause the sheep to be white (on a black or brown factored sheep).Many black and brown Finnsheep have white markings on their heads or legs. These sheep are still considered “solid color” and not piebald.
Spotting is caused by the piebald (S locus) gene. These genes are present or not in addition to the genetic “packages” already discussed. They are apparent on brown or black colored sheep. Therefore, a sheep may either be a black/white piebald or a brown/white piebald. The piebald gene is recessive so each parent must have at least one copy of the piebald gene or no lambs will be spotted. Technically, the gene is for white spots. So even a sheep who appears white with black dots, is actually a black sheep with an enormous white spot!
Pheomelanin is a tan or peach-colored pigment which is occasionally apparent in Finnsheep at birth. It appears to be found more in the primary fibers (hair), rather than the secondary fibers (wool). A lamb continues to gain more secondary fibers after birth and as he does so, the white secondary fibers (wool) become predominant. The majority of the time, these lambs have white wool by 6 months of age.
This color should not be confused with fawn. In the fawn color, the lamb is born brown and the wool begins to lighten along a sharp line in the wool. Fawn Finnsheep have tan colored wool with brown faces / legs throughout their lives. The wool of the ram lamb pictured at the right turned completely white by 5 months of age, though he retained some color on his legs.
A Quality Finn Fleece… Producing, Purchasing, Preparing
Things to think about:
Avoiding chaff (vegetable matter from hay, straw etc.). This may be more or less important to the buyer depending on how he/she plans to prepare the fleece. As a buyer, ask the shepherd how he avoids getting chaff in their fleeces. Are his sheep jacketed? How does he feed their hay?
To what degree is the fleece skirted? Usually fleeces are sold for a dollar amount per pound of wool. The buyer and seller should both be in agreement about how much of the fleece is being sold. Is the fleece you are buying lightly skirted, heavily skirted, only the part under the jacket, etc.?
When washing the fleece, be very careful to avoid doing things that would cause the fleece to felt. Remember Finn wool “likes” to felt. That is why it is a preferred wool for felting projects. But you don’t want your fleece to felt in the laundry sink. Felting is caused by moisture, heat and friction. When washing wool, avoid drastic changes in temperature. Be sure your rinse water is the same temp as your wash water. Do not let the wool sit in the water for a long time and cool down, then put back in hot water again for your next wash or rinse cycle. Avoid agitating the wool!
Finn is not a very greasy wool. It can be washed using a (hand) dishwashing liquid. Ammonia or other harsh products are usually not needed for cutting the grease.
Enjoy! Once you have experienced Finn wool, you may find it is your favorite for hand-spinning!